Total Quality Management (TQM)
Total Quality Management describes a management approach to gain long-term organizational success through customer satisfaction. In total quality management at each and every step of product manufacturing there is prime focus on quality. In total quality management ,each and every member of the organization actively participate in improving organizational processes, product standards, services, and the working environment in which they work. Quality centered approach is used in total quality management. Many organizations in world operate on the technique.
Strategy 1: The TQM element approach
This strategy selects key business processes and organizational units and by using the tools of TQM to encourage improvements. This approach was extensively used in early 1980s as organizations tried to apply parts of TQM as they learned them.
Strategy 2: The guru approach
This approach uses the guidelines provided by one or more of the leading quality gurus (thinkers) as a reference against which to determine where the companies has deficiencies. Then the companies make requisite changes to rectify those deficiencies.
Strategy 3: The organization model approach
In this strategy individuals/teams visit companies/organizations that have taken a leadership role in TQM and evaluate their processes and causes of success. They integrate these successful processes with their own processes to develop an organization model adapted for their specific organizations.
Strategy 4: The Japanese total quality approach
Organizations/companies using the Japanese total quality approach observe the detailed implementation tools, techniques and strategies employed by Deming Prize winning organizations/companies and use their experience to develop a long run plan for in-house use.
Strategy 5: The award criteria approach
When using this approach, companies/organization uses the criteria of quality award. For example, the European Quality Award, the Deming Prize, and the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award to recognize areas for improvement. According to this approach, TQM implementation focuses on achieving specific award criteria.