Project Scope Management
PMBOK defines project scope management as the processes which are required to check that all the project activities are included, and include only the required activities in order to complete the project timely and successfully. Project scope management manage the scope of the project it also defines the project scope and after defining control the project scope. In defining process of project scope management project activities, tasks, deliverables are clearly defined, and in controlling phase project scope is controlled which mean that only the activities defined in the scope definition processes are included and no other activity can be included later on.
Project Scope Management Processes
Plan Scope Management
Plan scope management defines and documents how the project scope will be defined, validated, and controlled. This is the overall plan of scope management of a project, which clearly states that how project scope will be defined and who will define the scope, plan scope management also includes scope validation and scope controlling techniques. If a project goes through these processes scope creep issue will not arise. For example, a software development company is being awarded a project of website development of a multinational company (MNC). In plan scope management everything will be clearly defined e.g. website requirements, functionality features etc. website scope will be validated against requirements, functionality and features. Once the scope is defined it is controlled later on in the development phase of the website. Following are the tools and techniques for plan scope management
Expert Judgement: Subject matter experts can evaluate the project effectively and help to develop scope management plan. Website developers and domain experts can provide better scope management plan for above said example.
Meetings: meetings with project stakeholders helps to develop better scope management plan. Their views and ideas can lead to develop better scope management plan.
In this process project scope management, project requirements are determined, documented, and ensure that these requirements satisfy stakeholders needs and wants to meet project goals and objectives. For example, in the case of aforementioned project, website requirements for the client organization or customer are gathered. Make sure that all requirements are added in the requirements, like website functions and features, look and feel of the website, database requirements of the website, number of users of the website, accessibility, user friendly aspect and easy navigation etc. Changes in project requirements is easy and less expensive when the requirements are finalizing. Following are the tools and techniques for requirement gathering
Interviews: interviews with project stakeholders helps to gather precise and realistic requirements of the project being undertaken. Their views and ideas can lead to develop better requirements documents.
Focus Groups: focus groups consists of project stakeholders and subject matter experts, they sit together and discuss project.
Facilitated workshops: project related workshops and seminars are very helpful about requirements of the project. Participants of the workshop are the people related to the project.
Group Creativity techniques: Similar domain experts can sit together and think about project.
Group Decision Making Techniques: Multiple groups can be formed to discuss all possible outcomes and alternatives. This tools provide better project requirements.
Questionnaires and Surveys: questionnaires and surveys are effective tools of requirements gathering. Numbers of questions are asked in the questionnaires and survey from the intended audience, audience response is analyzed later on.
Observations: observation of the people doing relevant job or work is helpful to finalize requirements.
Prototypes: in software industry this technique is very popular. In this technique a mock up or prototype is created and hand over to client for feedback. Client feedback is incorporated and requirements are refined.
Benchmarking: benchmark the requirements with standards and the organization doing the same job provide better insight about requirements.
Context Diagrams: context diagrams are the pictorial view of the project scope. A picture has a worth of thousand words. Context diagrams show that how project activities, processes and equipment’s etc. are related together.
Document Analysis: Project documents like project charter, contract document, feasibility reports are better source of requirements analysis.
Scope definition is the process of developing detailed description of project and product. In scope definition process each and every thing of the project is defined and documented. For example, in the case of website development project, scope of website is defined which includes its detailed description and also detailed description of the end product. Website description is about website configuration, database type, development tools, running environment and user interface etc. Following are the tools and techniques for scope definition
Expert Judgement: Subject matter experts can better define scope of a project. Website developers and domain experts can better provide website scope for above said example.
Product analysis: Product analysis technique very helpful for the projects having products as deliverables rather than services.
Alternatives Generation: develop number to alternatives to do the project. Select the appropriate alternative as per project requirement.
Facilitated Workshops: project related workshops and seminars are very helpful about requirements of the project. Participants of the workshop are the people related to the project.
Create Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is the process of dividing project task, activities, milestones and deliverables of the project or product into smaller, more manageable chunks of work components. Work breakdown structure (WBS) is important tool to divide and manage whole project easily. For example, in the case of website development divide whole website into manageable pieces of work. Database development, front end development, back end programming and integration of all these activities to develop a whole website are the examples of work breakdown structure (WBS). Following are the tools and techniques used for work creation breakdown structure (WBS)
Decomposition: Decomposition is the technique to decompose tasks, jobs or deliverables into smaller manageable tasks.
Expert Judgment: Subject matter experts can better divide the whole project into more manageable chunks of work. Website developers and domain experts can better divide whole website project into sub tasks and sub-sub tasks.
Scope validation is the process of formalizing/validating acceptance of the finished project deliverables. In this process of scope validation, both project and product scope is validated against already defined scope. For example, in the case website development project all deliverables scope is validated. Which means that the functionality of the website is exactly the same as the functionality documented in the requirements. Following are the tools and techniques for scope validation
Inspection: Inspection involves activities like assessing, investigating, and validating to decide whether project deliverable meet requirements.
Group Decision Making Techniques: Multiple groups can be formed to discuss all possible outcomes and alternatives. This tools provide better project scope validation.
Control scope is the process of project scope management in which project and product scope is monitored and controlled and changes to the scope baseline is managed. Through scope control process scope creep issue is addressed effectively. In the case of aforementioned project example, changes in the website scope is monitored and controlled to ensure that the final project and product scope match with scope defined. Following are the tools and techniques for scope control
Variance Analysis: in variance analysis, variance is in the scope is identified. If variance exist fix it.
In the project management context, the term scope can be defined as:
Product scope: The characteristics and functionality that describe a product, service, or result.
Project scope: The work activities performed to produce a product, provide a service, or result with defined features and functions.
Project scope term is sometimes used as including product scope. Project scope management processes and supporting tools and techniques may vary from project to project. Project scope baseline is the accepted version of the project scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS) and its related WBS dictionary. Project scope baseline can be altered but this alteration can be done through change control board (CCB) by adapting formal change control procedures. Project scope baseline is used as a base for comparison while performing scope validation and scope control processes.